Cystoscopy (Endoscopy of the Bladder and Urethra)

Endoscopy of the urethra and the urinary bladder can be carried out on the standing horse under sedation. Indications for cystoscopy include haematuria, urinary urgency, suspected cystitis, urinary gravel or uroliths. During cystoscopy, a selective urinary sample from the ureter can be collected for specific diagnosis of renal disorders.